Publications

Statistics

  1. Francis, G. (in press). Equivalent statistics and data interpretation, Behavior Research Methods. The software mentioned in the text is available at the Open Science Framework. There is also an on-line app that converts between the different statistics.
  2. Francis, G. (2016). Implications of “too good to be true” for replication, theoretical claims, and experimental design: An example using prominent studies of racial bias, Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01382. This is an invited Focused Review based (in part) on the ideas in Francis (2015).
  3. Francis, G. (2016). Confirming the appearance of excess success: Reply to van Boxtel and Koch (2016), Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Springer online first. This comment corrects some errors and challenges the arguments in van Boxtel and Koch (2016), which was itself a comment on Francis (2014).
  4. Francis, G. (in press). Comment on: Conceptualizing and evaluating the replication of research results, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. This comment corrects some errors and challenges some ideas in Fabrigar and Wegener (2016).
  5. Francis, G. (2015). Excess success for three related papers on racial bias, Frontiers in Psychology: Personality and Social Psychology, 6:512.
  6. Francis, G., Tanzman, J. & Matthews, W. J. (2014). Excess success for psychology articles in the journal Science, PLOS One, 9(12): e114255. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114255.
  7. Francis, G. (2014). Too much success for recent groundbreaking epigenetic experiments. Genetics, 198(2), 449-451. Downlaod from the journal. Also see the commentary from a senior editor of the journal and a reply by Dias and Ressler.
  8. Francis, G. (2014). The frequency of excess success for articles in Psychological Science. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1180-1187. Download from the journal.
  9. Francis, G. (2013). We should focus on the biases that matter: A reply to commentaries. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 57, 190-195. Download from journal web site, preprint This article replies to commentaries that were generated in response to the JMP target article listed below. The commentaries include: Morey, Vandekerckhove et al., Ioannidis, Simonsohn, Gelman, and Johnson.
  10. Francis, G. (2013). Replication, statistical consistency, and publication bias. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 57, 153-169. Download from the journal web site. A preprint is also available. The journal will publish commentaries from several statistical experts.
  11. Francis, G. (2013). We don't need replication, but we do need more data. European Journal of Personality. 27, 125-126. This article is one of several invited commentaries on a target article. Downloaded from the journal web site. See the "Special Issue Article" and "Comment and Response".
  12. Francis, G. (2013). Publication bias in "Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men" by Elliot et al. (2010). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 292-296. The original authors do write a reply. The tone is good, but it does not address how the originally reported results might have been biased. My response is on PubMed Commons.
  13. Francis, G. (2012). The psychology of replication and replication in psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6), 580-589. doi: 10.1177/1745691612459520 Also be sure to read the reply from Galak and Meyvis. They admit to having a file-drawer of weaker studies, but (strangely) suggest that it does not matter.
  14. Francis, G. (2012). Publication bias and the failure of replication in experimental psychology. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(6), 975-991. doi: 10.3758/s13423-012-0322-y
  15. Francis, G. (2012). Follow the argument where it leads: Simonsohn’s criticisms on publication bias critiques are unfounded. This manuscript is a rebuttal of a "working paper" that Uri Simonsohn posted on his web site. A variation of Simonsohn's paper has been accepted in Perspectives on Psychological Science. I wrote a comment that reflects many of the same ideas.
  16. Francis, G. (2012). Evidence that publication bias contaminated studies relating social class and unethical behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109:E1587. doi:10.1073/pnas.1203591109 . Note the link below the article to a reply by Piff et al. PNAS does not allow for back-and-forth discussion, but please read my rebuttal to the counterarguments from Piff et al.
  17. Francis, G. (2012). Replication Initiative: Beware Misinterpretation. Science, 336(6083), 802. DOI:10.1126/science.336.6083.802-a
  18. Francis, G. (2012). The same old New Look: Publication bias in a study of wishful seeing. i-Perception, 3(3), 176-178. DOI: 10.1068/i0519ic . Be sure to read the reply by Balcetis and Dunning and my rebuttal. (The reply and rebuttal seem to have been misplaced when the journal was taken over by a different company.)
  19. Francis, G. (2012). Too good to be true: Publication bias in two prominent studies from experimental psychology. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 151-156. DOI 10.3758/s13423-012-0227-9
Talks

I've given several talks related to publication bias. Here are some that have been recorded and posted on the web.

  1. Francis (2013). The failure of successful replication in psychology. Beyond Questionable Research Practices: Symposium on Good Research Practice in Behavioral Sciences. February 5, 2013. I'm in the fourth video (but the others are worth a watch as well). The talk slides are also available for download. (As of 19 November 2014, the site seems to be down, but a direct link to the video seems to work.)
  2. Francis (2012). We're all doing it wrong. Special Session: Improving the Quality of Psychological Science. 2012 Annual Scientific Meeting of the Psychonomic Society. November 16, 2012. My talk starts at around 20:30, but the other talks are worth watching as well.

Visual perception

  1. Manassi, M., Hermens, F., Francis, G. & Herzog, M.H. (2015). Release of crowding by pattern completion. Journal of Vision, 15, doi: 10.1167/15.8.16.
  2. Francis, G. (2015). Contour erasure and filling-in: Old simulations account for most new observations. i-Perception, 6(2), 116-126. doi:10.1068/i0684 .
  3. Clarke, A. M., Herzog, M. H. & Francis, G. (2014). Visual crowding illustrates the inadequacy of local versus global and feedforward versus feedback distinctions in modelling visual perception. Frontiers in Psychology: Perception Science, 5, 1193. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01193.
  4. Francis, G. & Kim. J. (2012). Simulations of induced visual scene fading with boundary offset and filling-in. Vision Research, 62, 181-191. Download from journal web site.
  5. Kim. J. & Francis, G. (2011). Color selection, color capture, and afterimage filling-in. Journal of Vision, 11(3):22, Download from journal web site, doi:10.1167/11.3.23.
  6. Ruter, J., Francis, G., Frehe, P., & Herzog, M.H. (2011). Testing dynamical models of vision. Vision Research, 51, 343-351.
  7. Francis, G. & Wede, J. (2010). Properties of long-range illusory contours produced by offset-arcs. Perception, 30, 1466-1475.
  8. Francis, G., Bias, K. & Shive, J. (2010). The psychological four color mapping problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 16, 109-123.
  9. Francis, G. (2010). Modeling filling-in of afterimages. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 72, 19-22.
  10. Dombrowe, I., Hermens, F., Francis, G., & Herzog, M. H. (2009). The roles of mask luminance and perceptual grouping in visual backward masking. Journal of Vision, 9(11):22, 1-11, Download from journal web site, doi:10.1167/9.11.22.
  11. Hermens, F., Herzog, M.H. & Francis, G. (2009). Combining simultaneous with temporal masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35(4), 977-988.
  12. Francis, G. (2009). Cortical dynamics of figure-ground segmentation: Shine-through. Vision Research, 49, 140-163. Download from Elsevier
  13. Francis, G. & Cho, Y. (2008). Effects of temporal integration on the shape of visual backward masking functions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 34, 1116-1128.
  14. Van Horn, D. R. & Francis, G. (2007). Orientation tuning of a two-stimulus afterimage: Implications for theories of filling-in. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 3, 375-387. Available at the journal web site.
  15. Wede, J. & Francis, G. (2007). Attentional effects on afterimages: Theory and data. Vision Research, 47, 2249-2258. Download from Science Direct
  16. Ansorge, U., Francis, G., Herzog, M. H. & Ogmen, H. (2007). Visual masking and the dynamics of human perception, cognition, and consciousness: A century of progress, a contemporary synthesis, and future directions. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 3, 1-8. Available at the journal web site.
  17. Francis, G. & Cho, Y. (2007). Testing models of object substitution with backward masking. Perception & Psychophysics, 69, 263-275. Download from IngentaConnect.
  18. Francis, G. (2007). What should a quantitative model of masking look like and why would we want it? Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 3, 21-31. Available at the journal web site.
  19. Duangudom, V., Francis, G. & Herzog, M. H. (2007). What is the strength of a mask in visual metacontrast masking? Journal of Vision, 7, 1-10. doi: 10.1167/7.1.7. Available at the journal web site.
  20. Wede, J. & Francis, G. (2006). The time course of visual afterimages: Data and theory. Perception, 35, 1155-1170. Download from Perception web.
  21. Francis, G. & Cho, Y. (2005). Quantitative models of backward masking. In H. Ogmen & B. Breitmeyer (Eds.) The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes, MIT Press.
  22. Francis, G. & Schoonveld, W. (2005). Using afterimages for orientation and color to explore mechanisms of visual filling-in. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 383-397. Download from Ingenta
  23. Pizlo, Z., Li, Y. & Francis, G. (2005) A new look at binocular stereopsis. Vision Research, 45, 2244-2255. Download from Elsevier
  24. Francis, G. & Ericson, J. (2004). Using afterimages to test neural mechanisms for perceptual filling-in. Neural Networks, 17, 737-752. Download from Science Direct.
  25. Francis, G., Rothmayer, M. & Hermens, F. (2004). Analysis and test of laws for backward (metacontrast) masking. Spatial Vision, 17, 163-186. Download PDF preprint.
  26. Francis, G. & Herzog, M. (2004). Testing quantitative models of backward masking. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 104-112. Download PDF preprint.
  27. Francis, G. (2003). Online simulations of models for backward masking. Behavior, Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 35, 512-519. Download PDF preprint. Try the model simulations.
  28. Francis, G. (2003). Developing a new quantitative account of backward masking. Cognitive Psychology, 46, 198-226. Download PDF.
  29. Francis, G. & Rothmayer, M. (2003). Interactions of afterimages for orientation and color: Experimental data and model simulations. Perception & Psychophysics, 65, 508-522. Download from IngentaConnect. See the afterimage.
  30. Francis, G. & Hermens, F. (2002). Comment on: Competition for consciousness among visual events: The psychophysics of reentrant visual processes, by Di Lollo, Enns and Rensink (2000). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 590-593. Download PDF preprint.
  31. Francis, G. (2002). Masking. In Lynn Nadel and Robert Goldstein (Eds.) , Encyclopedia of cognitive science. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
  32. Francis, G. & Kim, H. (2001). Perceived motion in orientational afterimages: Direction and speed. Vision Research, 41, 161-172. Download PDF.
  33. Francis, G. (2000). Quantitative theories of metacontrast masking. Psychological Review, 107, 768-785. Download PDF preprint.
  34. Kim, H. & Francis, G. (2000). Perceived motion in complementary afterimages: Verification of a neural network theory. Spatial Vision, 13, 67-86. Download PDF.
  35. Francis, G. & Kim, H. (1999). Motion parallel to line orientation: Disambiguation of motion percepts. Perception, 28, 1243-1255. Download PDF
  36. Francis, G. (1999). Spatial frequency and visual persistence: Cortical reset. Spatial Vision, 12, 31-50.
  37. Kim, H. & Francis, G. (1998). A computational and perceptual account of motion lines. Perception, 27, 785-797. Download PDF
  38. Francis, G. (1998). Neural network dynamics of cortical inhibition: Metacontrast masking. Journal of Information Sciences, 107, 287--296.
  39. Francis, G. (1997). Cortical dynamics of lateral inhibition: Metacontrast masking. Psychological Review, 104, 572-594
  40. Francis, G. (1996). "Neural network dynamics of inhibition: Metacontrast masking." In M. Gasser (Ed.), Online Proceedings of the 1996 Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Conference. URL http://www.cs.indiana.edu/event/maics96/Proceedings/Francis/francis.html
  41. Francis, G. (1996). Cortical dynamics of visual persistence and temporal integration. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 1203-1212.
  42. Francis, G. (1996). Cortical dynamics of lateral inhibition: Visual persistence and ISI. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 1103-1109.
  43. Francis, G. & Grossberg, S. (1996). Cortical dynamics of boundary segmentation and reset: Persistence, afterimages, and residual traces. Perception, 25, 543-567.
  44. Francis, G. & Grossberg, S. (1996). Cortical dynamcis of form and motion integration: Persistence, apparent motion, and illusory contours. Vision Research, 36, 149-174.
  45. Francis, G. (1995). Neural dynamics of cortical inhibition: Metacontrast masking. Proceedings of Second Annual Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 285--288.
  46. Francis, G. & Grossberg, S. (1994). How do representations of visual form organize our percepts of visual motion? Proceedings of the 1994 Cognitive Science Conference, 330-334.
  47. Francis, G., Grossberg, S., & Mingolla, E. (1994). Cortical dynamics of feature binding and reset: Control of visual persistence. Vision Research, 34 , 1089-1104.
  48. Francis, G. (1994). Cortical models of visual perception: Dynamics of form and motion segmentation. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation services.
  49. Francis, G., Grossberg, S., and Mingolla, E. (1993). Dynamic formation and reset of coherent visual segmentations by neural networks. In R. Mammone (Ed.) Artificial Neural Networks for Speech and Vision. London: Chapman & Hall.

Human-computer interaction

  1. Zhang, X., Fang, K. & Francis, G. (2016). How to optimize switch virtual keyboards to trade off speed and accuracy. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications. 1: 6. doi:10.1186/s41235-016-0007-6. The software mentioned in the text is available at the Open Science Framework.
  2. Shive, J. & Francis, G. (2013). Choosing colors for map display icons using models of visual search. Human Factors: The Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 55, 373-396.
  3. Francis, G. & Johnson, E. (2011). Speed-accuracy tradeoffs in specialized keyboards. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69, 526-538. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2011.04.002. Download from journal web site
  4. Francis, G., Rash, C. E. & Russo, M. B. (2009). The human-machine interface challenge. In (Eds. C.E. Rash, M.B. Russo, T.R Letowski, & E.T. Schmeisser), Helmet-Mounted Displays: Sensory, Perceptual and Cognitive Issues. U. S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory: Fort Rucker, AL. pp. 29--44.
  5. Francis, G. & Rash, C. E. (2009). Cognitive factors. In (Eds. C.E. Rash, M.B. Russo, T.R Letowski, & E.T. Schmeisser), Helmet-Mounted Displays: Sensory, Perceptual and Cognitive Issues. U. S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory: Fort Rucker, AL. pp. 29--44.
  6. Shive, J. & Francis, G. (2008). Applying models of visual search to map display design. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66, 67-77. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2007.08.004. Download from Science Direct.
  7. Francis, G. & Oxtoby, C. (2006). Building and testing optimized keyboards for specific text entry. Human Factors, 48, 279-287.
  8. Francis, G., & Rash, C. (2005). Analysis and design of keyboards for the AH-64D helicopter. Fort Rucker, Alabama: US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory. USAARL Report No. 2005-11. Download any USAARL Tech Report
  9. Francis, G. (2003). MFDTool: A software program for designing optimal multifunction displays. Behavior, Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 35, 236-243.
  10. Francis, G. & Rash, C. E. (2002). A software tool to optimize information on multifunction dispalys. Gateway, XIII, No. 3, pp. 3-4. Download any issue of Gateway.
  11. Francis, G., & Rash, C. E. (2002). MFDTool (Version 1.3): A software tool for optimizing hierarchical information on multifunction displays. USAARL Report, No. 2002-22. Fort Rucker, AL. U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory. [MFDTool home page.] Download any USAARL Tech Report
  12. Francis, G., Rash, C. E., LeDuc, P. A., Adam, G. E., Archie, S. L., Lewis, L. J., Reynolds, B. S., & Suggs, C. L. (2002). A comparison of AH-64 pilot attitudes toward traditional and glass cockpit crewstation designs. USAARL Report, No. 2002-21. Fort Rucker, AL. U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory. Download any USAARL Tech Report
  13. Liu, B., Francis, G. & Salvendy, G. (2002). Applying models of visual search to menu design. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 56, 307-330. Download PDF preprint.
  14. Francis, G. (2000). Designing multifunction displays: An optimization approach. International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, 4, 107-124. Download PDF.
  15. Reardon, M. J. & Francis, G. (1999). Reducing the risk of aviator-multifunction display interface problems with human factor models and optimization design methods. SAFE Journal, 29, 100-106.
  16. Francis, G. (1999). A software tool for the design of multifunction displays. USAARL Report, No. 99-20. Fort Rucker, AL. U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory. [MFDTool home page.]
  17. Francis, G. (1998). Designing optimal hierarchies for information retrieval with multifunction displays. USAARL Report, No. 98-33. Fort Rucker, AL. U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory. Download any USAARL Tech Report
  18. Francis, G. (1997). Designing optimal hierarchies for information retrieval with multifunction displays. Final report DAAH04-96-C-0086, TCN 97065. U.S. Army Research Office.
  19. Francis, G. & Reardon, M. (1997). Aircraft multifunction display and control systems: A new quantitative human factors design method for organizing functions and display contents. USAARL Report, No. 97-18. Fort Rucker, AL. U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory. Download any USAARL Tech Report
  20. Francis, G. & Reardon, M. (1996). Multifunction display design: A review of human factors issues and a new quantitative design method. Final report DAAL03-91-C-0034, TCN 96-062. U. S. Army Research Office.

Misc.

  1. Francis, G., Neath, I., & Surprenant, A. (2000). The cognitive psychology online laboratory. In M. H. Birnbaum (Ed.) Psychological Experiments on the Internet. Academic Press. Introduction.
  2. Stevenson, A., Francis, G., & Kim, H. (1999). Java experiments for introductory psychology courses. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 31, 99-106. CogLab home page.
  3. Francis, G. (1996). The stability--plasticity dilemma in competitive learning. Purdue Mathematical Psychology Program, Technical Report No. 96-2.
  4. Francis, G. (1994a). Neural networks for short term pattern storage. In Proceedings of the 1994 World Congress on Neural Networks, II, 454-459.
  5. Francis, G. and Fuller, K. (1991). Using neural networks to solve coding theory problems. Journal of Undergraduate Mathematics, 23 , 55-58.