DPPP: DSM IV PDs and the FFM


Along with Drs. Josh Miller and Tom Widiger, we have expanded our work on understanding psychopathy from the perspective of the FFM to understanding all DSM IV personality disorders using this approach. Our first efforts invovled deriving FFM profiles for each disorder. As with our work the work on psychopathy, we asked experts in each of the PDs (between 25 to 30 for most disorders) to rate prototypic cases of the relevant personality disorder with respect to the thirty facets of the FFM as described by the NEO-PI-R. Ratings were aggregated within disorder to yield a prototypic profile Lynam & Widiger, 2001). In addition to documenting the excellent agreement among experts, Lynam and Widiger indicated how profiles generated in this fashion mapped onto profiles derived by other means, and how profiles made sense of the observed patterns of comorbidity. Several subsequent studies have demonstrated that PDs assessed using a prototype matching approach converge with and behave similarly to PDs assessed using more explicit measures. We have reported specifically on borderline PD (Trull, Widiger, Lynam, & Costa, 2003), antisocial PD (Gudonis, Miller, Miller, & Lynam, 2008). In several studies, Miller and colleagues (Miller, Reynolds, & Pilkonis, 2004; Miller, Pilkonis, & Morse, 2004; Miller, Bagby, & Pilkonis, 2005) have examined all 10 DSM PDs.

The prototype matching approach, while conceptually appealing, can be cumbersome, particularly in more clinical settings. The scoring methodology is complex and requires a statistical program to create the PD similarity scores. In addition, the scores are not intuitively meaningful and cannot be directly compared acorss disorders. To overcome these issues, in collaboration with Dr. Miller and others, we have developed a simplified count approach to scoring the PDs and sets of norms to allow comparison and interpretation (Miller, Bagby, Pilkonis, Reynolds, & Lynam, 2005; Miller, Lynam, Rolland, De Fruyt, Reynolds, Pham-Scottez, Baker, & Bagby, 2008). Specifically, we have published normative scores for North American, French and Dutch-Flemish Samples.

Information required for scoring the PD counts and for matching prototypes appears below. Also provided are excel programs that will allow scoring of an individual's NEO PI-R and provide normative scores.


General Scoring of Similarities and Counts

Description of prototype matching approach

SPSS syntax for prototype matching

Description of count approach

SPSS syntax for counts

Normative data and calculators

Calculator and norm sheet for US sample

Calculator and norm sheet for French sample

Calculator and norm sheet for Dutch-Flemish sample

Return to DPPP Home