2000 G. Stanley Hall/Harry Kirk Wolfe
Lecture Series

Sponsored by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology
the Education Directorate of the American Psychological Association

G. Stanley Hall Lecture Series Speakers

Alice Eagly
Prejudice: A Social Role Analysis

K. Anders Ericsson
Capturing the Essence of Excellence: An Expert-Performance Perspecive on Intelligence

James Nairne
Teaching Myths About Memory

Harry Kirk Wolfe Speaker

Virginia Andreoli Mathie
Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Professional Service

Prejudice: A Social Role Analysis

Prof. Alice Eagly
Department of Psychology
Northwestern University


Prejudice: A Social Role Analysis

Prejudice: A Social Role Analysis Within psychologists' classic approach to understanding prejudice, the concept is defined as a negative attitude toward a group. This negative attitude is thought to lead to discriminatory treatment in Allport's sense of placing individual group members at a disadvantage not merited by their own conduct. One of the challenges to this viewpoint derives from research showing that some of the groups that receive discriminatory treatment are not particularly disliked or thought to be generally inferior. The sources of this discrimination can be understood by looking, not at people's attitudes, but at the beliefs that underlie these attitudes. These beliefs derive in general from people's implicit reasoning that groups of people have the attributes that correspond to their common or highly visible social roles. For example, women are thought to be relatively kind and nurturant, because of their involvement in child care and occupations that involve service to others; African Americans are thought to possess relatively good athletic ability because of their visibility in prominent athletic roles. Such attributes can be evaluatively positive, as are nurturance and athletic ability, but do not qualify people for roles that are thought to favor other qualities–for example, for leadership roles in organizations. Discrimination thus arises when members of a group attempt to move into roles that not only are unusual for members of their group but also are perceived to require attributes different from those traditionally ascribed to group members. Research relevant to this analysis will be reviewed in the talk.

ALICE EAGLY is a professor of psychology at Northwestern University. Earlier she served on the faculties of Purdue University, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and Michigan State Universities. She earned her doctoral and master's degrees from the University of Michigan and her bachelor's degree from Harvard University. Dr. Eagly has published widely on the psychology of attitudes, especially attitude change and attitude structure. She is equally devoted to the study of gender. In both of these areas, she has carried out primary research and meta-analyses of research literature. She is the author of Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social Role Interpretation and (with co-author Shelly Chaiken) The Psychology of Attitudes as well as numerous journal articles and chapters. She has served as President of the Midwestern Psychological Association and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology and Chair of the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association. She has received several awards, including the Distinguished Scientist Award of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology, the Donald Campbell Award for Outstanding Contributions to Social Psychology from Society for Personality and Social Psychology, the Cattell Sabbatical Award, and a Citation as Distinguished Leader for Women in Psychology from the Committee on Women in Psychology of the American Psychological Association

Session Chair: Dr. Elizabeth Yost Hammer, Belmont University

Capturing the Essence of Excellence: An Expert-Performance Perspective on Intelligence

Prof. K. Anders Ericsson
Department of Psychology
Florida State University


Capturing the Essence of Excellence: An Expert-Performance Perspective on Intelligence

Over a century ago, Sir Francis Galton proposed that excellence in intellectual domains of expertise was primarily due to nature, namely inherited general mental abilities. He argued that no amount of experience and practice--nurture--could overcome limits set by individualsí innate mental capacities, no more than practice would enable individuals to excel in sports by changing the innate limits for physical characteristics, such as size, speed, and strength.

Recent research in many domains of expertise, such as chess, music and sports, confirms that some forms of nurture, such as mere experience with domain-relevant activities, have surprisingly limited benefits for enhancing performance. This research also demonstrates that appropriate focused training activities--deliberate practice--can dramatically change the human body and brain, and over extended time modify virtually all characteristics relevant to superior performance, with the exception of height. The acquisition of expert performance entails successive active development of new refined mental representations and mechanisms that give experts increased control over their performance and allow them to circumvent limits that general abilities impose on beginnersí performance. Consequently, the development of expert performance will be primarily limited by the quality of the training environment and individualsí engagement in deliberate practice.

Evidence will be presented for viewing high IQ and giftedness as acquired expert performance in academic domains, such as mathematics, language, and arts.

K. ANDERS ERICSSON is Conradi Eminent Scholar and Professor of Psychology at Florida State University. After receiving his Ph. D. in Psychology from University of Stockholm, Sweden in 1976, he led a human factors group at the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Linkˆping, Sweden. After completing a post-doctoral fellowship at Carnegie-Mellon University, he moved to the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1980, where he remained until 1992, apart from a two year leave at the Max-Planck Institute for Human Development and Education in West Berlin, Germany.

His dissertation research focused on methods of studying problem solving. This work was extended during his post-doc with Herbert Simon toward a methodology for eliciting and analyzing concurrent verbal reports of thinking, and is summarized in their book Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data, which was revised in 1993. While working with Bill Chase at Carnegie-Mellon, he developed the Theory of Skilled Memory from detailed analyses of how undergraduates acquired memory performance for numbers that rivaled the performance of professional mnemonists. This work was recently extended in collaboration with Walter Kintsch to form a theoretical account of long-term working memory (LTWM) during text comprehension and highly skilled performance.

During the last ten years he has worked with many collaborators to identify the cognitive mechanisms that mediate expert performance in domains such as music, chess and sports, and empirically demonstrate the role of extended deliberate practice in developing expert performance. He and Jacqui Smith co-edited the book Toward a General Theory of Expertise, in 1991, and he edited the 1996 book The Road to Excellence: The Acquisition of Expert Performance in the Arts and Sciences, Sports and Games.

Session Chair: Maureen McCarthy, Austin Peay University

Teaching Myths About Memory

Prof. James Nairne
Department of Psychology
Purdue University

Teaching Myths About Memory

I will discuss a modern functionalist approach to the study of remembering. Memory, like other psychological processes, developed to help us solve problems in our lives--it did not develop so we could warmly remember past conversations with our grandmother. Many modern memory researchers are convinced that we do not store static memory traces. All instances of remembering are essentially reconstructive; we remember so that we can predict the future, or decide on the most adaptive response in current time. This new perspective has many implications for how the topic of memory should be taught in the classroom. We continue to teach many myths about memory--e.g., about limited capacity, the distinction between short- and long-term memory, and so on--and I'll discuss how to avoid some of these pitfalls in your lectures.

James S. Nairne is professor of psychological sciences at Purdue University. He received his undergraduate training at the University of California, Berkeley and his Ph.D. in psychology from Yale University. He is an active researcher in cognitive psychology, specializing in human memory. He has published dozens of articles related to memory and is the author of Psychology: The Adaptive Mind, an introductory psychology textbook now in its second edition. He is an associate editor for the Journal of Memory and Language, as well as for the journal Memory, and he is a member of the editorial board of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Session Chair: Christopher Hakala, Lycoming College

Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Professional Service

Prof. Virginia Andreoli Mathie
Department of Psychology
James Madison University


Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Professional Service

Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Professional Service By Virginia Andreoli Mathie Department of Psychology James Madison University Teaching, scholarship and service are typically viewed as the three primary responsibilities of faculty members in higher education. Although teaching is generally listed first, many believe that in the current reward structure teaching is clearly secondary and the real rewards are given to those who excel in scholarship. The discussion about the relative value and weight given to teaching and scholarship in the evaluation process has led to a body of literature addressing the scholarship of teaching. It is interesting to note that in these discussions, no one questions the fact that service is always last in the list and given the least weight in the evaluation process. Indeed, in many institutions, service is frowned upon because it takes time away from scholarly activities. In this presentation I will argue that professional service plays a vital role in the academe, in the profession and in teaching and learning. I will examine the current status of service and the many ways in which it is defined and evaluated. Using my own experience as well as the experiences of colleagues around the country, I will give examples of how service can enhance teaching, learning and professional development. I will consider the concept of the "scholarship of service" and discuss how we might evaluate service more effectively.

Virginia Andreoli Mathie is a Professor of Psychology at James Madison University in Virginia. She holds a Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in the area of social psychology. She has been on the faculty of James Madison University for 25 years and served as the Department Head of Psychology from 1994 – 1998. Dr. Mathie was the recipient of the 1981 JMU Distinguished Teacher Award, the 1998 JMU Dolley Madison Award for Community Enhancement and the 1998 – 1999 JMU College of Education and Psychology's Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Mathie has served as President of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology, Division 2 of the American Psychological Association (APA), and as President of the Virginia Academy of Academic Psychologists. She is a Division 2 Fellow in the APA and serves as a reviewer for the journal Teaching of Psychology. Currently she is serving on the APA Board of Educational Affairs (BEA) and is chair of its Psychology Partnerships Project: Academic Partnerships to Meet the Teaching and Learning Needs of the 21st Century. In 1999 she received an APA Presidential Citation Award for her work on the partnerships project. She also chairs the BEA Technology Working Group and chaired the 1999 BEA/Education Directorate Miniconvention on Education and Technology.

Dr. Mathie's recent research interests have focused on understanding the unacknowledged rape victim. Her most recent publication is a chapter co-authored with Arnold Kahn titled "Understanding the acknowledged rape victim" in Travis and White's book Sexuality, Society, and Feminism, published by the American Psychological Association. She also has an interest in the effectiveness of instructional technology on teaching and learning.

Session Chair: Ludy T. Benjamin, jr., Texas A&M