Published Articles Using Cyberball

(If you have published an article using Cyberball, please let me know and I'll add it to the list)

Original Article:

Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K. T., & Choi, W. (2000). CyberOstracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 748-762.

Further information on Cyberball can be found here:

Williams, K. D., & Jarvis, B. (2006). Cyberball: A program for use in research on ostracism and interpersonal acceptance. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 38, 174-180.

Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism: The social kiss of death. Social and Personality Compass, 1, 236-24

Click here for Teaching & Learning Guide supplements for Ostracism: The social kiss of death

Cyberball Articles

1.         Abrams, D., Weick, M., Thomas, D., Colbe, H., & Franklin, K. M. (2011). On-line ostracism affects children differently from adolescents and adults. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29,110-123.

2.         Alvares, G. A., Hickie, I. B., & Guastella, A. J. (2010). Acute effects of intranasal oxytocin on subjective and behavioral responses to social rejection. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 316-321.

3.         Andari, E., Duhamel, J-R., Tiziana, Z., Herbrecht, E., Leboyer, M., & Sirigu, A. (2010). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 4389-4394.

4.         Aydin, N., Graupmann, V., Fischer, J., Frey, D., & Fischer, P. (2011). My role is my castle: The appeal of family roles after experiencing social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 981-986.

5.         Aydin, N., Krueger, J. I., Fischer, J., Hahn, D., Kastenmuller, A., Frey, D., & Fischer, P. (2012). “Man's best friend:” How the presence of a dog reduces mental distress after social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 446–449.

6.         Aydin, O., Şahin, D., Güzel, H., Abayhan, Y., Kaya, A., & Ceylan, S. (2013). Ait Olma İhtiyacının ve Haberdar Olmanın Psikolojik Dışlanmaya Gösterilen Tepkiler Üzerindeki Etkileri. (The effects of the need to belong and being informed on reactions to ostracism.) Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 28, 21-35.

7.         Bacon, A. K., Cranford, A. N., Blumenthal, H. (2015). Effects of Ostracism and Sex on Alcohol Consumption in a Clinical Laboratory Setting. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.

8.         Barkley, J. E., Salvy, S. J., & Roemmich, J. N. (2012). The effect of simulated ostracism on physical activity behavior in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics, 129, 659-666.

9.         Bartlett, M. Y., Condon, P., Cruz, J., Baumann, J., & Desteno, D. (2012). Gratitude: Prompting behaviours that build relationships. Cognition and Emotion, 26, 2-13.

10.     Bastian, B., & Haslam, N. (2010). Excluded from humanity: The dehumanizing effects of social ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 107-113.

11.     Beekman, J. B., Stock, M. L., & Marcus, T. (2015). Need to Belong, Not Rejection Sensitivity, Moderates Cortisol Response, Self-Reported Stress, and Negative Affect Following Social Exclusion. The Journal of Social Psychology.

12.     Beeney, J. E., Franklin, R. G., Levy, K. N., & Adams, R. B. (2011): I feel your pain: Emotional closeness modulates neural responses to empathically experienced rejection. Social Neuroscience, 6, 369-376.

13.     Bernstein, M. J., & Claypool, H. M. (2012). Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: Why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 185-196.

14.     Bernstein, M. J., Sacco, D. F., Young, S. G., Hugenberg, K., & Cook, E. (2010). Being “in” with the in-crowd: The effects of social exclusion and inclusion are enhanced by the perceived essentialism of ingroups and outgroups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 999-1009.

15.     Bernstein, M. J., & Claypool, H. M. (2012): Not all social exclusions are created equal: Emotional distress following social exclusion is moderated by exclusion paradigm. Social Influence, 7, 113-130

16.     Bolling, D. Z. (2011). Development of neural systems for processing social exclusion from childhood to adolescence. Developmental Science, 14, 1431-1444.

17.     Bolling, D. Z., Pitskel, N. B., Deen, B., Crowley, M. J., McPartland, J. C., Mayes, L. C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2011). Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation.NeuroImage, 54, 2462–2471.

18.     Bolling, D. Z., Pelphrey, K. A., & Vander Wyk, B. C. (2012). Differential brain responses to social exclusion by one's own versus opposite-gender peers. Social Neuroscience, 7, 331-346.

19.     Bolling, D. Z., Pelphrey, K. A., Vander Wyk, B. C. (2015). Trait-level temporal lobe hypoactivation to social exclusion in unaffected siblings of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 75-83.

20.     Bolling, D. Z., Pelphrey, K. A., Vander Wyk, B. C. (2015). Unlike adults, children and adolescents show predominantly increased neural activation to social exclusion by members of the opposite gender. Social Neuroscience. DOI:10.1080/17470919.2015.1117019

21.     Bolling, D. Z., Pitskel, N. B., Deen, B., Crowley, M. J., McPartland, J. C., Kaiser, M. D., Vander Wyk, B. C., Wu, J., Mayes, L. C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2011). Enhanced neural responses to rule violation in children with autism: A comparison to social exclusion. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 280-294.

22.     Bonenberger, M., Plener, P. L., Groschwitz, R. C., Grön, G., Abler, B. (2015). Polymorphism in the µ-opiod receptor gener (OPRM1) modulates neural processing of physical pain, social rejection and error processing. Experimental Brain Research.

23.     Bowmn, N. D., Kowert, R., Cohen, E. (2015). When the ball stops, the fun stops too: The impact of social inclusion on video game enjoyment. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 131-139.

24.     Boyes, M. E., & French, D. J. (2009). Having a Cyberball: Using a ball-throwing game as an experimental social stressor to examine the relationship between neuroticism and coping. Personal and Individual Differences, 47, 396-401.

25.     Bozin, M. A., & Yoder J. D. (2008). Social status, not gender alone, is implicated in different reactions by women and men to social ostracism. Sex Roles, 58, 713-720.

26.     Brown, C. M. (2009). Social inclusion facilitates interest in mating. Evolutionary Psychology, 7, 11-27.

27.     Buelow, M. T., Okdie, B. M., Brunell, A. B., & Trost, Z. (2015). Stuck in a moment and you cannot get out of it: The lingering effects of ostracism on cognition and satisfaction of basic needs. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 39-43.

28.     Bungert, M., Koppe, G., Niedtfeld, I., Vollstadt-Klein, S., Schmahl, C., Lis, S. (2015). Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder. PLoS ONE, 10.

29.     Byrne, K. A., Tibbett, T. P., Laserna, L. N., Carter-Sowell, A. R., and Worthy, D. A. (2015). Ostracism Reduces Reliance on Poor Advice from Others during Decision Making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

30.     Carter-Sowell, A. R., Chen, Z., & Williams, K. D. (2008). Ostracism increases social susceptibility. Social Influence, 3, 143-153.

31.     Carter-Sowell, A. R., Wesselmann, E. D., Wirth, J. H., Law, A. T., Chen, Z., Kosasih, M. W., van der Lee, R., & Williams, K. D. (2010). Strides for belonging trump strides for superiority: Effects of being ostracized for being superior or inferior to the others. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 66, 68-92.

32.     Çelik, P., van Beest, I., Lammers, J., & Bekker, M. (2013). Implicit threat vigilance among violent offenders diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder: The impact of ostracism and control threat. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7, 47-55.

33.     Chen, Z., DeWall, C.N., Poon, K-T., Chen, E.-W. (2012). When destiny hurts: Implicit theories of relationships moderate aggressive responses to ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48, 1029–1036.

34.     Chernyak, J., & Zayas, V. (2010). Being excluded by one means being excluded by all: Perceiving exclusion from inclusive others during one-person social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 582-585.

35.     Chester, D. S., & DeWall, C. N. (2015). Sound the Alarm: The Effect of Narcissism on Retaliatory Aggression is Moderated by dACC Reactivity to Rejection. Journal of Personality.

36.     Chester, D. S., DeWall, C. N., Pond Jr, R. S. (2016). The push of social pain: Does rejection’s sting motivate subsequent social reconnection? Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, x, 1-10.

37.     Chester, D. S., Eisenberger, N. I., Pond, R. S., Richman, S., Bushman, B. J., & DeWall, C. N. (2014). The interactive effect of social pain and executive functioning on aggression: An fMRI experiment. Social, Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 9, 699-704. doi:10.1093/scan/nst0

38.      Cheung, E. O., Slotter, E. B., Gardner, W. L. (2015). Are you feeling what I’m feeling? The role of facial mimicry in facilitating reconnection following social exclusion. Motivation and Emotion, 39.

39.     Chiou, W., Lee, C., Liao. D. (2015). Facebook effects on social distress: Priming with online social networking thoughts can alter the perceived distress due to social exclusion. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 230-236.

40.     Chow, R. M., Tiedens, L. Z., & Govan, C. L. (2007). Excluded emotions: The role of anger in antisocial responses to ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 896-903.

41.     Coyne, S. M., Gundersen, N., Nelson, D. A., & Stockdale L. (2011). Adolescents' prosocial responses to ostracism: An experimental study. Journal of Social Psychology, 151, 657-661.

42.     Crowley, M. J., Wu, J., McCarty, E. R., David, D. H., Bailey, C. A., & Mayes, L. C. (2009). Exclusion and micro-rejection: Event-related potential response predicts mitigated distress. Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, 20, 1518-1522.

43.     Crowley, M. J., Wu, J., Molfese, P. J., & Mayes, L. C. (2010). Social exclusion in middle childhood: Rejection events, slow-wave neural activity, and ostracism distress. Social Neuroscience, 5, 483-495.

44.     DeBono, A., Muraven, M. (2014). Rejection perceptions: Feeling disrespected leads to greater aggression than feeling disliked. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 43-52. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.05.014 

45.     Degner, J., Wentura, D., Gniewosz, B., & Noack, P. (2007). Hostility-related prejudice against Turks in adolescents: Masked affective priming allows for a differentiation of automatic prejudice. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29, 245-256.

46.     De Panfilis, C., Riva, P., Preti, E., Cabrino, C., Marchesi, C. (2015). When social inclusion is not enough: Implicit expectations of extreme inclusion in borderline personality disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 6, 301-309.

47.     DeWall, C. N., Twenge, J. M., Bushman, B. J., Im, C., & Williams, K. D. (2010). A little acceptance goes a long way: Applying social impact theory to the rejection-aggression link. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 168-174.

48.     DeWall, C.N., MacDonald, G., Webster, G.D., Masten, C.L., Baumeister, R.F., Powell, C., Combs, D., Schurtz, D.R., Stillman, T.F., Tice, D.M., & Eisenberger, N.I. (2010). Acetaminophen reduces social pain: Behavioral and neural evidence. Psychological Science, 21, 931-937.

49.     DeWall, C. N., Masten, C. L., Powell, C., Combs, D., Schurtz, D. R., & Eisenberger, N.R. (2012). Do neural responses to rejection depend on attachment style? An fMRI study. SCAN, 7, 184 -192.

50.     Dorn, K., Hook, J. N., Davis, D. E., Van Tongeren, D. R., & Worthington, E. r. (2014). Behavioral methods of assessing forgiveness. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 75-80. doi:10.1080/17439760.2013.84426

51.     Duclos, R., Wan, E. W., & Jiang, Y. (2012). Show me the honey! Effects of social exclusion on financial risk-taking. Journal of Consumer Research, 40, 1480-1493.

52.     Durlik, C., & Tsarkiris, M. (2015). Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 96, 57-63.

53.     Eisenberger, N. I., Jarcho, J. M., Lieberman, M. D., & Naliboff, B. D. (2006). An experimental study of shared sensitivity to physical pain and social rejection. Pain, 126, 132–138.

54.     Eisenberger, N. I., Gable, S. L., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). fMRI responses relate to differences in real world social experience. Emotion, 7, 745-754.

55.     Eisenberger, N. I., Inagaki, T. K., Rameson, L., Mashal, N. M., & Irwin, M. R. (2009). An fMRI study of cytokine-induced depressed mood and social pain: The role of sex differences. Neuroimage, 47, 881-890.

56.     Eisenberger, N. I., Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K.D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302, 290-292.

57.     Eisenberger, N. I., Taylor, S. E., Gable, S. L., Hilmert, C.J., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses. Neuroimage, 35, 1601-1612.

58.     Eisenberger, N. I., Way, B., Taylor, S. E., Welch, W. T., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Understanding genetic risk for aggression: Clues from the brains response to social exclusion. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 1100-1108.

59.     Fareri, D. S., Chang, L. J., & Delgado, M. R. (2012). Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6, 148, 1-17.

60.     Frìas, M. T., & Shaver, P. R. (2014). The moderating role of attachment insecurities in the association between social and physical pain. Journal of Research in Personality, 53, 192-200.

61.     Gaffey, A. E., & Wirth, M. M. (2014). Stress, rejection, and hormones: Cortisol and progesterone reactivity to laboratory speech and rejection tasks in women and men [v1; ref status: approved with reservations 2, http://f1000r.es/48a] F1000Research 2014, 3:208 (doi:10.12688/f1000research.5142.1)

62.     Gallardo‐Pujol, D. D., Andrés‐Pueyo, A. A., & Maydeu‐Olivares, A. A. (2013). MAOA genotype, social exclusion and aggression: An experimental test of a gene–environment interaction. Genes, Brain & Behavior, 12, 140-145. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00868.x

63.     Geniole, S. N., Carré, J. M., & McCormick, C. M. (2011). State, not trait, neuroendocrine function predicts costly reactive aggression in men after social exclusion and inclusion. Biological Psychology, 87, 137-145.

64.     Gilman, J. M., Curran, M. T., Calderon, V., Schuster, R. M., Evins, A. E. (2016). Altered Neural Processing to Social Exclusion in Young Adult Marijuana Users. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 1, 152-159.

65.     Gonsalkorale, K. & Williams, K. D. (2007). The KKK won’t let me play: Ostracism even by a despised outgroup hurts. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 1176-1186.

66.     Gonzalez, M. Z., Beckes, L., Chango, J., Allen, J. P., Coan, J. A. (2014). Adolescent Neighborhood Quality Predicts Adult dACC Response to Social Exclusion. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 8, 921-928.

67.     Goodacre, R. & Zadro, L. (2010). O-Cam: A new paradigm for investigating the effects of ostracism. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 768-774.

68.     Goodwin, S. A., Williams, K. D., & Carter-Sowell, A. R. (2010). The psychological sting of stigma: The costs of attributing ostracism to racism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 612-618.

69.     Gratz, K. L., Dixon-Gordon, K. L., Breetz, A., & Tull, M. (2013). A laboratory-based examination of responses to social rejection in borderline personality disorder: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Journal of Personality Disorders, 27, 157-171. doi:10.1521/pedi.2013.27.2.157

70.     Greitemeyer, T., Fischer, P., & Kastenmuller, A. (2012). The effects of social exclusion on confirmatory information processing. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 462-469.

71.     Güroğlu, B., Will, G., & Klapwijk, E. T. (2013). Some bullies are more equal than others: Peer relationships modulate altruistic punishment of bullies after observing ostracism. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7, 13-23.

72.     Gutz, L., Küpper, C., Renneberg, B., & Niedeggen, M. (2011). Processing social participation: An event-related brain potential study. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology, 22, 453-458.

73.     Hales, A. H., Kassner, M. P., Williams, K. D., Graziano, W. G. (2016). Disagreeableness as a Cause and Consequence of Ostracism. Personal Social Psychology Bulletin, DOI: 10.1177/0146167216643933.

74.     Hales, A. H., Wesselmann, E. D., Williams, K. D. (2016). Prayer, self-affirmation, and distraction improve recovery from short-term ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 64, 8-20.

75.     Harmon-Jones, E., Peterson, C. K., & Harris, C. R. (2009). Jealousy: Novel methods and neural correlates. Emotion, 9, 113-117.

76.     Hawes, D. J., Zadro, L., Fink, E., Richardson, R., O'Moore, K., Griffiths, B., Dadds, M. R., & Williams, K. D. (2012). The effects of peer ostracism on children's cognitive processes, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 599-613.

77.     Hawes, D. J., Zadro, L., Iannuzzelli, R., Godwin, A., MacNevin, G., Dadds, M. R., Griffiths, B., & Richardson, R. (2013). Internalising problems and the effects of peer ostracism on children's primary needs. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7, 41-45.

78.     Hawkley, L. C., Williams, K. D., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). Responses to ostracism across adulthood. Social, Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 6, 234-243.

79.     Hermann, A. D., Skulborstad, H. M., & Wirth, J. H. (2014). Inoculating against the aversive effects of ostracism with acceptance: The role of attachment styles. Social Influence, 9, 255-271. doi:10.1080/15534510.2013.824388

80.     Hess, Y. D., & Pickett, C. L. (2010). Social rejection and self- versus other-awareness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 453-456.

81.     Hillebrandt, H., Sebastian, C., & Blakemore, S. J. (2011). Experimentally induced social inclusion influences behavior on trust games. Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 27-33.

82.     Ho, E. J., Surenkok, G., Zayas, V. (2014). Explicit but Not Implicit Mood is Affected by Progressive Social Exclusion. Journal of Interpersonal Relations, Intergroup Relations and Identity, 7, 22-37.

83.     Howard, A. M., Landau, S., & Pryor, J. B. (2014). Peer bystanders to bullying: Who wants to play with the victim? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 265-276. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9770-8

84.     Hulme, N., Hirsch. C., & Stopa, L. (2012). Images of the self and self-esteem: Do positive self-images improve self-esteem in social anxiety? Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 41, 163-173.

85.     Iannone, N. E., McCarty, M. K., Kelly, J. R.,  Williams, K. D. (2014). Friends with each other but strangers to you: Source relationship softens ostracism’s blow. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 18, 349-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/gdn0000018

86.     Iffland, B., Sansen, L. M., Catani, C., & Neuner, F. (2014). Rapid heartbeat, but dry palms: reactions of heart rate and skin conductance levels to social rejection. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-10.

87.     IJzerman, H., Gallucci, M., Pouw, W. T. J. L., Weiβgerber, S.C., Van Doesum, N. J., & Williams, K. D. (2012). Cold-blooded loneliness: Social exclusion leads to lower skin temperatures. Acta Psychologica, 140, 283-288.

88.     Jamieson, J. P., Harkins, S. G., & Williams, K. D. Need threat can motivate performance after ostracism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 690-702.

89.     Jarva, J. A., & Oinonen, K. A. (2007). Do oral contraceptives act as mood stabilizers? Evidence of positive affect stabilization. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 10, 225-234.

90.     Jiang, J., Zhang, Y., Ke, Y., Hawk, S. T., Qiu, H. (2015) Can’t buy me friendship? Peer rejection and adolescent materialism: Implicit self-esteem as a mediator. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 58, 48-55.

91.     Jobst, A., Sabass, L., Palagyi, A., Bauriedl-Schmidt, C., Mauer, M. C., Sarubin, N., Buchheim, A., et al. (2015). Effects of social exclusion on emotions and oxytocin and cortisol levels in patients with chronic depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 60, 170-177.

92.     Karlsson, T., Abetkoff, D., Chiou, W. (2015). Priming with Energy Drinks May Promote Men’s Tolerance of Social Pain. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 43, 1035-1041.

93.     Karremans, J. C., Heslenfeld, D. J., van Dillen, L. F., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2011). Secure attachment partners attenuate neural responses to social exclusion: An fMRI investigation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 81, 44-50.

94.     Kawamoto, T., Nittono, H., & Ura, M. (2013). Cognitive, Affective, and Motivational Changes during Ostracism: An ERP, EMG, and EEG Study Using a Computerized Cyberball Task. Neuroscience Journal, xx, xxx-xxx.

95.     Kawamoto, T., Nittonno, H., & Ura, M. (2010). Enhanced attention to social exclusion cues in Cyberball: An event-related potential study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 77, 332-332.

96.     Kawamoto, T., Nittono, H., & Ura, M. (2011). Is not being chosen by others in a group negatively perceived? An event-related potential examination. Japanese Journal of Physiological Psychology And Psychophysiology, 29, 33-40.

97.     Kelly, M., McDonald, S., & Kellett, D. (2013). The psychological effects of ostracism following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 27, 1676-1684. doi:10.3109/02699052.2013.834381

98.     Kelly, M., McDonald, S., & Rushby, J. (2012). All alone with sweaty palms -- physiological arousal and ostracism. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83, 309-314.

99.     Kerr, N. L., Seok, D. H., Poulsen, J. R., Harris, D. W., & Lawrence. A. M. (2008). Social ostracism and group motivation gain. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 736-746.

100.  Kesting, M-L., Bredenpohl, M., Klenke, J., Westerman, S., & Lincoln, T. M. (2013). The impact of social stress on self-esteem and paranoid ideation. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental. Psychiatry, 44, 122-e128.

101.  Knausenberger, J., Hellmann, J. H., & Echterhoff, G. (2014). When virtual contact is all you need: Subtle reminders of facebook preempt social‐contact restoration after exclusion. European Journal of Social Psychology, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2035

102.  Knowles, M. L. (2014). Social rejection increases perspective taking. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 126-132. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.06.008

103.  Krill, A., & Platek, S. M. (2009). In-group and out-group membership mediates anterior cingulate activation to social exclusion. Evolutionary Neuroscience, 1, 1-7.

104.  Krill, A.L., Platek, S.M., & Wathne, K. (2008). Feelings of control during social exclusion are partly accounted for by empathizing personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 684–688.

105.  Lakin, J. L., Chartrand, T. L., & Arkin, R. M. (2008). I am too just like you: Nonconscious mimicry as an automatic behavioral response to social exclusion. Psychological Science, 19, 816–822.

106.  Lau, G., Moulds, M. L. & Richardson, R. (2009). Ostracism: How much it hurts depends on how you remember it. Emotion, 9, 430-434.

107.  Lawrence, K. A., Chanen, A. M., & Allen, J. S. (2011). The effect of ostracism upon mood in youth with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25, 702-714.

108.  Legate, N., DeHaan, C. R., Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. R. (2013). Hurting you hurts me too: The psychological costs of complying with ostracism. Psychological Science, 24, 583-588. doi: 10.1177/0956797612457951.

109.  Leiro, J., & Zwolinski, J. (2014). How are prosocial responses to ostracism related to thwarted psychological needs?. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 19, 76-84.

110.  Lelieveld, G., Moor, B., Crone, E. A., Karremans, J. C., & van Beest, I. (2013). A penny for your pain? The financial compensation of social pain after exclusion. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 206-214.

111.  Levinson, C. A., Langer, J. K., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2013). Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicts social anxiety symptoms in young adults. Behavior Therapy, 44, 470-478. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2013.04.007

112.  Lincoln, T. M., Stahnke, J., & Moritz, S. (2014). The Short-Term Impact of a Paranoid Explanation on Self-esteem: An Experimental Study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 397-406. doi: 10.1007/s10608-014-9600-5

113.  Löckenhoff, C. E., Cook, M. A., Anderson, J. F., & Zaya, V. (2012). Age differences in responses to progressive social exclusion: The role of cognition and socioemotional functioning. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 10.1093/geronb/gbs042.

114.  Loersch, C., & Arbuckle, N. L. (in press). Unraveling the mystery of music: Music as an evolved group process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

115.  Lustenberger, D. E., & Jagacinski, C. M. (2010). Exploring the effects of ostracism on performance and intrinsic motivation. Human Performance, 23, 283-304.

116.  Masten, C. L., Colich, N. L., Rudie, J. D., Bookheimer, S. Y., Eisenberger, N. I., & Dapretto, M. (2011). An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 260–270.

117.  Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Borofsky, L., Pfeifer, J.H., McNealy, K., & Dapretto, M. (2009). Neural correlates of social exclusion during adolescence: Understanding the distress of peer rejection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4, 143-157.

118.  Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Borofsky, L., Pfeifer, J. H., McNealy, K., & Dapretto, M. (2011). Subgenual anterior cingulate responses to peer rejection: A marker of adolescents' risk for depression. Development & Psychopathology, 23, 283-292.

119.  Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Pfeifer, J.H., & Dapretto, M. (2010). Witnessing peer rejection during adolescence: Neural correlates of empathy for experiences of social exclusion. Social Neuroscience, 5, 496-507.

120.  Masten, C. L., Morelli, S., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2011). An fMRI investigation of empathy for “social pain” and subsequent prosocial behavior NeuroImage, 55, 381-388.

121.  Masten, C. L., Telzer, E. H., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2011). An fMRI investigation of attributing negative social treatment to racial discrimination. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 1042-1051.

122.  Masten, C. L., Telzer, E. H., Fuligni, A., Lieberman, M. D., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2012). Time spent with friends in adolescence relates to less neural sensitivity to later peer rejection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 106-114.

123.  Maurage, P., Joassin, F., Philippot, P., Heeren, A., Vermeulen, N., Mahau, P., Delperdange, C., Corneille, O., Luminet, O., and Timary, P. D.(2012). Disrupted regulation of social exclusion in alcohol-dependence: An fMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37, 2067-2075.

124.  McQuaid, R. J., McInnis, O. A., Matheson, K., Anisman, H. (2015). Distress of ostracism: Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism confers sensitivity to social exclusion. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 10.

125.  McDonald, M. M. & Donnellan, M. B.(2012). Is ostracism a strong situation? The influence of personality in reactions to rejection. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 614–618.

126.  McPartland, J. C., Crowley, M. J., Perszyk, D. R., Naples, A. J., Mukerji, C. E., Wu, J., Molfese, P., Bolling, D., Pelphrey, K. A., & Mayes, L. C. (2011). Temporal dynamics reveal atypical brain response to social exclusion in autism. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 271-279.

127.  Miller, H. C., Bourrasseau, C., Williams, K. D., & Molet, M. (2014). There is no sweet escape from social pain: Glucose does not attenuate the effects of ostracism. Physiology & Behavior, 1248-14. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.10.032

128.  Moor, B. G., Güroglu, B., Macks, Z. A. O. D., Rombouts, S. A. R. B., Molen, M. W. V. D., & Crone, E. A. (2012). Social exclusion and punishment of excluders: Neural correlates and developmental trajectories. NeuroImage, 59, 708-717.

129.  Molet, M., Macquet, B., Lefebvre, O., & Williams, K. D. (2013). A focused attention intervention for coping with ostracism. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 22, 1262-1270. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.08.010

130.  Mueller, S. C., De Rubeis, J., Lange, D., Pawelzik, M. R., Sütterlin, S. (2016). Sensitivity to Social Exclusion in Major Depressive Disorder Predicts Therapeutic Outcome after Inpatient Treatment. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 85, 50-52.

131.  Munnelly, A., Martin, G., Dack, C., Zedginidze, A., & McHugh, L. (2014). The transfer of social exclusion and inclusion functions through derived stimulus relations. Learning & Behavior, 42, 270-280. doi:10.3758/s13420-014-0144-z

132.  Murray-Close, D., (2011). Autonomic reactivity and romantic relational aggression among female emerging adults: Moderating roles of social and cognitive risk. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 80, 28–35.

133.  Niedeggen, M., Sarauli, N., Cacciola, S., Weschke, S. (2014). Are there benefits of social overinclusion? Behavioral and ERP effects in the Cyberball paradigm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1-8.

134.  Nietlisbach, G., & Maercker, A. (2009). Effects of social exclusion in trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1, 323-331.

135.  Nishiyama, Y., Okamoto, Y., Kunisato, Y., Okada, G., Yoshimura, S., Kanai, Y., … Yamawaki, S. (2015). fMRI Study of Social Anxiety during Social Ostracism with and without Emotional Support. PLoS ONE, 10.

136.  Nordgren, L. F., Banas, K., MacDonald, G. (2011). Empathy gaps for social pain: Why people underestimate the pain of social suffering. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 120-128.

137.  Nozaki, Y., Koyasu, M. (2013). The relationship between trait emotional intelligence and interaction with ostracized others’ retaliation. PLoS ONE, 8, 1.

138.  Nordgren, L. F., McDonnell, M-H. M., & Loewenstein, G. (2011). What constitutes torture? Psychological impediments to an objective evaluation of enhanced interrogation tactics. Psychological Science, 22, 689.

139.  O'Brien, E., Ellsworth, P.C., & Schwarz, N. (2012). Today's misery and yesterday's happiness: Differential effects of current life-events on perceptions of past wellbeing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 968–972.

140.  Oaten, M. R., Williams, K. D., Jones, A., & Zadro, L. (2008). The effects of ostracism on self-regulation in the socially anxious. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 471-504.

141.  Onoda, K., Okamoto, Y., Nakashima, K., Nittono, H., Yoshimura, S., Yamawaki, S., Yamaguchi, S., & Ura, M. (2010). Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulated cortex activation induced by ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 385-391.

142.  Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Priming third-party ostracism increases affiliative imitation in children. Developmental Science, 12, F1–F8.

143.  Paolini, D., Alparone, F. R., Cardone, D., van Beest, I., Merla, A. (2016). “The face of ostracism”: The impact of the social categorization on the thermal facial responses of the target and the observer. Acta Psychologica, 163, 65-73.

144.  Park, J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2014). Social exclusion causes a shift toward prevention motivation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 56, 153-159.

145.  Park, S. H., Park, Y. O. (2015). Observing Social Exclusion Leads to Dehumanizing the Victim. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, xx-xx.

146.  Perry, Y., Henry, J. D., Sethi, N., & Grisham, J. R. (2011). The pain persists: How social exclusion affects individuals with schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 339-349.

147.  Peterson, C. K., Gravens, L. C., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2011). Asymmetric frontal cortical activity and negative affective responses to ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 277-285.

148.  Pfundmair, M., Aydin, N., Frey, D., Echterhoff, G. (2014). The interplay of oxytocin and collectivistic orientation shields against negative effects of ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 246-251.

149.  Pfundmair, M., Aydin, N., Du, H., Yeung, S., Frey, D., Graupmann. (2015). Exclude me if you can: Cultural effects on the outcomes of social exclusion. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1-18.       

150.  Pfundmair, M., Eyssel, F., Graupmann, V., Frey, D., & Aydin, N. (2015) Wanna play? The role of self-construal when using gadgets to cope with ostracism, Social Influence, 10, 221-235.

151.  Pfundmair, M., Graupmann, V., Frey, D., Aydin, Nilüfer, A. (2015). The Different Behavioral Intentions of Collectivists and Individualists in Response to Social Exclusion. Personal Social Psychology Bulletin, 41. 

152.  Pharo, H., Gross, J., Richardson, R., & Hayne, H. (2011). Age-related changes in the effect of ostracism. Social Influence, 6, 22-38.

153.  Plaisier, X. S., & Konijn, E. A. (2013). Rejected by peers—Attracted to antisocial media content: Rejection-based anger impairs moral judgment among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 49, 1165-1173. doi:10.1037/a0029399

154.  Pollatos, O., Matthias, E., & Keller, J. (2015). When interoception helps to overcome negative feelings caused by social exclusion. Frontiers in Psychology, 6.

155.  Poon, K., Chen, Z. (2016). Assuring a sense of growth: A cognitive strategy to weaken the effect of cyber-ostracism on aggression. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 31-37.

156.  Poon, K., Teng, F., Chow, J. T., Chen, Zhansheng. (2015). Desiring to connect to nature: The effect of ostracism on ecological behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 116-122.

157.  Puetz, V. B., Kohn, N., Dahmen, B., Zvyagintsev, M., Schüppen, A., Schultz, R. T., … Konrad, K. (2014). Neural Response to Social Rejection in Children With Early Separation Experiences. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 1328-1337

158.  Qu, C., Wang, Y., & Huang, Y. (2013). Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: An ERP study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7

159.  Rajchert, J., Winiewski, M. (2015). The behavioral approach and inhibition systems’ role in shaping the displaced and direct aggresive reaction to ostracism and rejection. Personality and Individual Differences, 88, 272-279.

160.  Ren, D., Wesselmann, E., Williams, K. D. (2016). Evidence for Another Response to Ostracism: Solitude Seeking. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7, 204-212. 

161.  Renneberg, B., Herm, H., Hahn, A., Staebler, K., Lammers, C-H., & Roepke, S. (2011). Perception of social participation in borderline personality disorder, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19, 473–480.

162.  Richman, S. B., Slotter, E. B., Gardner, W. L., DeWall, C. N. (2015). Reaching out by changing what’s within: Social exclusion increases self-concept malleability. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57, 64-77.

163.  Riem, M. M. E., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Huffmeijer, R., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2013). Does intranasal oxytocin promote prosocial behavior to an excluded fellow player? A randomized-controlled trial with cyberball. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 1418-1425. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.023

164.  Riva, P., Romero Lauro, J., DeWall, C. N., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Buffer the pain away: Stimulating the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex reduces pain following social exclusion.Psychological Science, 23, 1473-1475.

165.  Riva, P., Wirth, J. H., & Williams, K. D. (2011). The consequences of pain: The social and physical pain overlap on psychological responses. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 681-687.

166.  Rotge J. Y., Lemogne C., Hinfray S., Huguet P., Grynszpan O., Tartour E., et al. . (2015). A meta-analysis of the anterior cingulate contribution to social pain. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 10, 19–27. 10.1093/scan/nsu110

167.  Ruggieri, S., Bendixen, M., Gabriel, U., & Alsaker, F. (2013). Cyberball: The impact of ostracism on the well-being of early adolescents. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 72, 103-109. doi:10.1024/1421-0185/a000103

168.  Ruggieri, S., Gabriel, U., Bendixen, M., & Alsaker, F. D., (2013). Do victimization experiences accentuate reactions to ostracism? An experiment using Cyberball. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7, 25-32. doi: 10.3233/DEV-1312114

169.  Sacco, D. F., Wirth, J. H., Hugenberg, K., Chen, Z., & Williams, K. D. (2011). The world in black and white: Ostracism enhances the categorical perception of social information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 836-842.

170.  Sacco, D. F., Young, S. G., Bernstein, M. J., Hugenberg, K. (2014). Reactions to Social Inclusion and Ostracism as a Function of Perceived In-Group Similarity. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 18, 129-137.

171.  Salvy, S-J., Bowker, J-C, Nitecki, L. A., Kluczynski, M.A., Germeroth, L. J., & Roemmich, J. N. (2011). Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents' motivation to eat and energy intake. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37, 23–32. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsr066.

172.  Salvy, S. J., Bowker, J. C., Nitecki, L. A., Kluczynski, M. A., Germeroth, L. J., & Roemmich, J. N. (2011). Impact of simulated ostracism on overweight and normal-weight youths' motivation to eat and food intake. Appetite, 56, 39-45.

173.  Schaafsma, J., & Williams, K. D. (2012). Exclusion, intergroup hostility, and religious fundamentalism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 829-837.

174.  Schoel, C., Eck, J., & Greifeneder, R. (2014). A matter of vertical position: Consequences of ostracism differ for those above versus below its perpetrators. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 149-157.

175.  Sebastian, C. L., Tan, G. C. Y., Roiser, J. P., Viding, E. Dumontheil, I., & Blakemore, S. (2010). Developmental influences on the neural bases of responses to social rejection: Implications of social neuroscience for education. NeuroImage, 57, 686-694.

176.  Sebastian, C., Blakemore, S., & Charman, T. (2009). Reaction to ostracism in adolescents with autism spectrum conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1122-1130.

177.  Sebastian, C., Viding, E., Williams, K. D., & Blakemore, S. (2010). Social brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence. Brain and Cognition, 72, 143-145.

178.  Segovia, K.Y., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Virtual imposters: Responses to avatars that do not look like their controllers, Social Influence, 7, 285-303.

179.  Sellaro, R., Steenbergen, L., Verkuil, B., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Colzato, L. S. (2015). Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) does not increase prosocial behavior in Cyberball. Frontiers in Psychology, 6.

180.  Shoulberg, E.K., Sijtsema, J.J., & Murray-Close, D. (2011). The association between valuing popularity and relational aggression: The moderating effects of actual popularity and physiological reactivity to exclusion. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110, 20–37.

181.  Sijtsema, J. J., Shoulberg, E. K., Murray-Close, D. (2011). Physiological reactivity and different forms of aggression in girls: Moderating roles of rejection sensitivity and peer rejection.Biological Psychology, 86, 181–192.

182.  Slabbinck, H., Houwer, J.D., Kenhove, P.V. (2012). The Pictorial attitude implicit association test for need for affiliation. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 838–842.

183.  Slavich, G.M., Way, B.M., Eisenberger, N.I., & Taylor, S.E. (2010). Neural sensitivity to social rejection is associated with inflammatory responses to social stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 14817-14822.

184.  Sreekrishnan, A., Herrera, T. A., Wu, J., Borelli, J. L., White, L. O., Rutherford, H. J.V., Mayes, L. C. and Crowley, M. J. (2014), Kin rejection: social signals, neural response and perceived distress during social exclusion. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12191

185.  Staebler, K., Renneberg, B., Stopsack, M., Fiedler, P., Weiler, M., & Reopke, S. (2011). Facial emotional expression in reaction to social exclusion in borderline personality disorder. Psychological Medicine, 41, 1-10.

186.  Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Lambert, N. M., Crescioni, A. W., DeWall, C. N., & Fincham, F. D. (2009). Alone and without purpose: Life loses meaning following social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 686-694.

187.  Stock, M. L., Gibbons, F. X., Peterson, L. M., & Gerrard, M. (2013). The effects of racial discrimination on the HIV-risk cognitions and behaviors of Black adolescents and young adults. Health Psychology, 32, 543-550. doi:10.1037/a0028815

188.  Stock, M.L., Gibbons, F. X., Walsh, L. A., & Gerrard, M. (2011). Racial identification, racial discrimination, and substance use vulnerability among African American young adults. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1349-1361.

189.  Svetieva, E., Zadro, L., Denson, T. F., Dale, E. (2015). Anger mediates the effect of ostracism on risk-taking. Journal of Risk Research.

190.  Tang, H. Y., & Richardson, R. (2013). Reversing the negative psychological sequelae of exclusion: Inclusion is ameliorative but not protective against the aversive consequences of exclusion. Emotion, 13, 139-150. doi:10.1037/a0029521                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

191.  Teng, F., & Chen, Z. (2012). Does social support reduce distress caused by ostracism? It depends on the level of one's self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1192–1195.

192.  Ura, M., & Yamawaki, S. (2009). Decreased ventral anterior cingulate cortex activity is associated with reduced social pain during emotional support.Social Neuroscience, 4, 443-454.

193.  Uzma, S. R., Ebel-Lam, A., Mortimer, A., Kristen, M. (2009). Self-confirmation strivings in depression: An extension to the affective domain using an experimental design. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 900-908.

194.  Van Beest, I., Carter-Sowell, A. R., van Dijk, E., & Williams, K. D. (2012). Groups being ostracized by groups: Is the pain shared, is recovery quicker, and are groups more likely to be aggressive? Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 16, 241-254. doi:10.1037/a0030104

195.  Van Beest, I. & Williams, K. D. (2006). When inclusion costs and ostracism pays, ostracism still hurts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 918-928.

196.  Van Beest, I., Williams, K. D., & van Dijk, E. (2011). Cyberbomb: Effects of being ostracized from a death game. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 581-596.

197.  Van Bommel, M., van Prooijen, J., Eiffers, H., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2016). The lonely bystander: Ostracism leads to less helping in virtual bystander situations. Social Influence. DOI: 10.1080/15534510.2016.1171796.

198.  Van Dijk, W.W., Van Dillen, L.F., Seip, E.C. & Rotteveel, M. (2012). Emotional time travel: Emotion regulation and the overestimation of future anger and sadness. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 308–313

199.  Van Noordt, S. J. R., White, L. O., Wu, J., Mayes, L. C., Crowley, M. J. (2015). Social exclusion modulates event-related frontal theta and tracks ostracism distress in children. NeuroImage.

200.  Waal-Andrews, W. D., & Beest, I.V. (2012). When you don't quite get what you want psychological and interpersonal consequences of claiming inclusion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1367.

201.  Watson-Jones, R. E., Whitehouse, H., Legare, C. H. (2015). In-Group Ostracism Increases High-Fidelity Imitation in Early Childhood. Psychological Science, 27, 34-42.

202.  Walasek, L., Matthews, W. J., Rakow, T. (2015). The need to belong and the value of belongings: Does ostracism change the subjective value of personal possessions?

203.  Weik, U., Maroof, P., Zöller, C., & Denizer, R. (2010). Pre-experience of social exclusion suppresses cortisol response to psychosocial stress in women but not in men. Hormones and Behavior, 58, 891-987.

204.   Welker, K. M., Oberleitner, D. E., Cain, S., & Carré, J. M. (2013). Upright and left out: Posture moderates the effects of social exclusion on mood and threats to basic needs. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 355-361. doi:10.1002/ejsp.1944

205.  Weschke, S., Niedeggen, M. (2015). ERP effects and perceived exclusion in the Cyberball paradigm: Correlates of expectancy violation? Brain Reserach, 1624, 265-274.

206.  Wesselmann, E. D., Bagg, D., & Williams, K. D. (2009). “I feel your pain”: The effects of observing ostracism on the ostracism detection system. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45,1308-1311.

207.  Wesselmann, E. D., Hales, A. H., Ren, D., Williams, K.D. (2015). Ostracism threatens personal security, A temporal need threat framework. Handbook of Personal Security, 191-205.

208.  Wesselmann, E. D., Williams, K. D., Wirth, J. H. (2014). Ostracizing group members who can (or cannot) control being burdensome. Human Ethology Bulletin - Proc. of the IV ISHE Summer Institute. 82-103.

209.  Wesselmann, E.D., Wirth, J.H., Mroczek, D.K., Williams, K.D. (2012). Dial a feeling: Detecting moderation of affect decline during ostracism. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 580–586.

210.  Wesselmann, E. D., Wirth, J. H., Pryor, J. B., Reeder, G. D., & Williams, K. D. (2015). The Role of Burden and Deviation in Ostracizing Others. The Journal of Social Psychology, 155, 483-496.

211.  Westermann, S., Kesting, M. L., & Lincoln, T. M. (2012). Being deluded after being excluded? How emotion regulation deficits in paranoia-prone individuals affect state paranoia during experimentally induced social stress. Behavior Therapy, 43, 329-340.

212.  Westermann, S., Rief, W., Euteneuer, F., Kohlmann, S. (2015). Social exclusion and shame in obesity. Eating Behaviors, 17, 74-76.

213.  White, L.O., Wu, J., Borelli, J.L., Mayes, L.C., & Crowley, M.J. (2013). Play it again: Neural responses to reunion with excluders predicted by attachment patterns. Developmental Science, 1–12.

214.  White, L.O., Wu, J., Borelli, J.L., Rutherford, H.J.V., David, D.H., Kim-Cohen, J. (2012). Attachment dismissal predicts frontal slow-wave ERPs during rejection by unfamiliar peers. Emotion, 12:4,690-700.

215.  Whitson, J., Wang, C. S., Kim, J., Cao, J., Scrimpshire, A. (2014). Responses to normative and norm-violating behavior: Culture, job mobility, and social inclusion and exclusion. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

216.  Will, G. J., Crone, E. A., & Güroğlu, B. (2015). Acting on social exclusion: Neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of excluders. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 209-218.

217.  Will, G. J., Crone, E. A., van den Bos, W., & Güroğlu, B. (2013). Acting on observed social exclusion: Developmental perspectives on punishment of excluders and compensation of victims. Developmental Psychology, 49, 2236-2244. doi:10.1037/a0032299

218.  Will, G. J., Lier, P. A. C., Crone, E. A., Güroğlu, B. (2015). Chronic Childhood Peer Rejection is Associated with Heightened Neural Responses to Social Exclusion During Adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

219.  Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 425-452.

220.  Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism: The social kiss of death. Social and Personality Compass, 1, 236-24.

221.  Williams, K. D. (2011). The pain of exclusion. Scientific American Mind, January/February, 30-37.

222.  Williams, K. D. & Jarvis, B. (2006). Cyberball: A program for use in research on interpersonal ostracism and acceptance. Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180.

223.  Williams, K. D., & Nida, S. A. (2011). Ostracism: Consequences and coping. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 71-75.

224.  Wirth, J. H. & Williams, K. D. (2009). “They don’t like our kind”: Consequences of being ostracized while possessing a group membership. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 12, 111-127.

225.  Wirth, J. H., Lynam, D. R., & Williams, K. D. (2010). When social pain is not automatic: Personality disorder traits buffer ostracism’s immediate negative impact. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 397-401.

226.  Wölfer, R., & Scheithauer, H. (2013). Ostracism in childhood and adolescence: Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral effects of social exclusion. Social Influence, 8, 217-236. doi:10.1080/15534510.2012.706233

227.  Wudarczyk, O. A., Kohn, N., Bergs, R., Gur, R. E., Turetsky, B., Schneider, F., & Habel, U. (2015). Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion - an fMRI investigation with Cyberball. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, xxx-xxx.

228.  Xu, M., Li, Z., Zhang, J., Sun, L., Fan, L., Zeng, Q., Yang, D. (2015). Social exclusion influences attentional bias to social information. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 199-208.

229.  Yaakobi, E., & Williams, K. D. (2015). Ostracism and attachment orientation: Avoidants are less affected in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures. British Journal of Social Psychology. doi: 10.1111/bjso.12122

230.  Yaakobi, E., & Williams, K. D. (2016). Recalling an Attachment Event Moderates Distress After Ostracism. European Journal of Personality, doi: 10.1002/per.2050.

231.  Yanagisawa, K., Masui, K., Onoda, K., Furutani, K., Nomura, M., Yoshida, H., Ura, M. (2011). The effects of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems on social inclusion and exclusion.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 502–505.

232.  Yanagisawa, K., Masui, K., Furutani, K., Nomura, M., Yoshida. H., & Ura, M. (2011). Temporal distance insulates against immediate social pain: An NIRS study of social exclusion, Social Neuroscience, 6, 377-387

233.  Yanagisawa, K., Masui, K., Furutani, K., Nomura, M., Ura, M., & Yoshida, H. (2011). Does higher general trust serve as a psychosocial buffer against social pain? An NIRS study of social exclusion. Social Neuroscience, 6, 190-197.

234.  Yeager, D.S., & Trzesniewski, K.H. (2012). An implicit theories of personality intervention reduces adolescent aggression in response to victimization and exclusion. Child Development, 1–19.

235.  Zadro, L., Williams, K. D., & Richardson, R. (2004). How low can you go? Ostracism by a computer is sufficient to lower self-reported levels of belonging, control, self-esteem, and meaningful existence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 560-567.

236.  Zadro., L., Boland, C., & Richardson, R. (2006). How long does it last? The persistence of the effects of ostracism in the socially anxious. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 692-697.

237.  Zhong, C. B., & Leonardelli, G. J. (2008). Cold and lonely: Does social exclusion literally feel cold? Psychological Science, 19, 838-842.

238.  Zhou, X., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). The symbolic power of money: Reminders of money after social distress and physical pain. Psychological Science, 20, 700-706.

239.  Zöller, C., Maroof, P., Weik, U., & Denizer, R. (2010). No effect of social exclusion on salivary cortisol secretion in women in a randomized controlled study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 1294-1298.

240.  Zwolinski, J. (2012). Psychological and neuroendocrine reactivity to ostracism. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 108–125.

241.  Zwolinski, J. (2014). Does inclusion after ostracism influence the persistence of affective distress? Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 18, 282-301.