Main Page
"Phi is not Beta"
Custom Magni-phi
Custom Simpli-phi

This site, developed by Filip J. Pizlo, requires a Java 1.1 browser, such as Netscape 4.06 or later and Internet Explorer 4.0 or later. It serves as a complement to the "Phi is not Beta" Mini Review (cited below), and offers several tools that will show you Magni-phi, a greatly enhanced version of the phi-phenomenon, and the original Phi as discovered by Max Wertheimer in 1912. A number of options are provided below, including a Web-enhanced presentation intended to summarize the Mini Review.

Phi is not Beta, or why Wertheimer's discovery launched the Gestalt revolution. This is a Web-enhanced slide-show which contains the original text of the talk given by Steinman, Pizlo & Pizlo at ARVO on Monday, May 1, 2000 @ 15:45 GMT. It also includes a guided version of the ARVO Demo applet, which explains each of the views in depth.

This page is recommended for those who are seeing Magni-phi for the first time.

ARVO Demo was displayed during the talk given at ARVO in 2000. This demo provides a series of pre-configured menu options that demonstrate the robustness of Magni-phi, and compare it to Phi and Beta.

Custom Magni-phi is user-configurable. Magni-phi depends primarily on delay parameters, so it is best to leave them alone until the other options have been explored.

Custom Simpli-phi demonstrates Wertheimer's Phi, which is much less vivid.

If you wish to use resources on this page for your own demos, we recommend that you download an archive of this site. Two files in different formats are provided: or archive.tar.gz.

	If you are recieving an "Application Blocked" error, this is due to a
	requirement in the Java versions greater than 1.7u51.  As a workaround:
	Windows 7
	* Start, Control Panel, Java, Security.
	* Edit site list
	* Add
	* Type in ""
	* Click Add, then OK.
	Mac OS X:
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	* Java
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Steinman, R. M., Pizlo, Z. & Pizlo, F. J. (2000) Phi is not beta, and why Wertheimer's discovery launched the Gestalt revolution: a minireview. Vision Research, 40, 2257-2264.